Compactness is one geometric property of a sunspot group that has not yet been systematically quantified. We calculate the compactness of a small sample of δ-spots and β-spots using a minimum bounding circle. On average, the δ-spots are found to be more than twice as compact as the β-spots.
Another white-light flare was captured by HMI off the solar limb, this time with materials seen ejected from the Sun. A fraction of the ejecta was seen falling back to the Sun.
An unprecedented observation of a limb flare in HMI’s white-light continuum shows that the white-light intensity at the post-flare loop-top continues to grow for 16 more minutes while UV/EUV intensities decay. Both the WL/UV intensity and the EUV intensities show quasi-periodic pulsations with a period close to 8.0 and 6.8 minutes, respectively.
An unsupervised machine-learning algorithm is used on selected features derived from the polarity inversion lines (PIL) mask and difference PIL mask. It is found these features are effective in predicting flaring occurrences.
A strong limb flare observed simultaneously by the SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI, which is very rare, allows the authors to study the emission mechanism for white-light flare loops, as well as estimate the electron densities along the flare loop.
A total of 90 circular-ribbon flares are identified in 8 years of SDO observations, and 33 of them are found associated with white-light enhancements, a rate higher than non-circular-ribbon flares. It is thus suggested that the fan-spine magnetic field topology and the total amount of energy release plays roles in causing white-light flares.
AR12192, the largest active region in Solar Cycle 24, produced 6 X-class flares, but none of them were associated with a CME. However, a much weaker flare, of M4.0-class, was associated with a CME. Magnetic field and morphological changes are analyzed during these flares to understand why this is the case.
44 strong flares are analyzed, and a few factors are identified to determine whether a flare will be eruptive or confined.
Magnetic field changes associated with solar flares, observed by the SDO/HMI, are surveyed, and permanent changes of magnetic field are found in the majority of flare events. Properties of the magnetic field changes are further investigated.
Two homologous circular-ribbon flares associated with two filament eruptions were observed and analyzed. The emergence of magnetic flux ropes helped to inject free energy into the region and drive the magnetic reconnection above it.