Sunquakes are helioseismic waves excited by solar flares, usually observed in the photosphere. However, some of these events are found to have their counterparts in the chromosphere, as observed in the SDO/AIA UV channels.
Why do some flares cause sunquakes and others do not? A survey of 60 strong flares in Solar Cycle 24 supports a hypothesis that the coupling of downward photospheric oscillations and the impacts from flares may play a role in causing sunquakes.
A sunquake event was excited by an M9.3 flare; however, the source of the sunquake waves was wave-mechanically extrapolated to about 1 megameter beneath the photosphere.
A number of sunquake events were detected in the photosphere after the X9.3 flare of 6 September 2017. This analysis reported the first detection of the chromspheric response to the sunquake events using CaII and Hα observations made by the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope.
Analysis of HMI and KONUS/WIND data shows that photospheric and helioseismic flare impacts started to develop in compact regions in close vicinity of the magnetic polarity inversion line in the pre-impulsive phase before detection of hard X-ray emission.
Waves of magnetic-field variations were observed associated with the sunquake waves that were excited by the X9.3 flare on 2017 September 6. The nature and cause of the magnetic waves are discussed after the phase relations and power distributions of the magnetic waves and Doppler-observed sunquake waves are investigated.
An X9.3 flare excited strong yet unusual sunquakes.
New HMI high-cadence vector magnetograms are now available. Observations every 135 or 90 seconds reveal the rapid magnetic evolution occurring during major solar eruptions.