A comparison of the surface flow patterns in observation and numerical simulation suggests that the flux tube emerging speed has been overestimated in theories.
We have generated a dataset of emerging active regions (EARs) observed by SDO/HMI that is specifically suitable for helioseismic analysis. Using this dataset we show that, on average the bipoles have a symmetric the east-west velocity relative to differential rotation.
Large-scale inflows form around emerging solar active regions in the near-surface layer and alter the global meridional flow patterns.
A realistic MHD simulation driven directly by SDO/HMI vector magnetograms reproduced a solar eruption in a non-potential flux-emerging active region.