A more comprehensive time-distance helioseismic method is developed to derive the Sun’s meridional circulation, and a 3-layer flow structure is found through the convection zone.
A newly discovered, fast-moving wave propagates outward along sunspots’ radial direction and may provide new diagnostics of the sunspot subsurface structure.
What could be common between solar atmosphere and information exchange in communicating systems? Well, this is all about how information is transferred from point A to point B. This work represents a proof-of-concept application of methods of mutual information (MI) to helioseismology.
Analysis of a large number of supergranules observed with HMI and simulations with a convectively stabilized solar model imply that the average supergranular cell has a peak upflow of 240 m s-1 at a depth of 2.3 Mm and a corresponding peak outward horizontal flow of 700 m s-1 at a depth of 1.6 Mm.