Taking advantage of 11 different databases, we use statistical analysis to probe the nature of photospheric magnetic structures. We find evidence of two separate mechanisms at play, and propose that they are directly connected to the global and small-scale components of the solar dynamo.
By synthesizing the results of photospheric field change indicated by HMI observations and coronal field variation suggested by the NLFFF modeling, we study the flare-related 3D magnetic restructuring and find it consistent with the coronal implosion scenario in the low solar atmosphere.
The STARA catalog of sunspot properties from the SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI data is presented and discussed. For STARA, an automated detection algorithm is employed to compile the first sunspot record from space-based instruments. This catalog is publicly available at http://www.nso.edu/staff/fwatson/STARA.