It is demonstrated that when taking into account of the radial inhomogeneity of the Coriolis number, the solar-like differential rotation and the double-cell meridional circulation can both be reproduced by the mean-field model.
Observed seismic upper bounds on large-scale lateral (horizontal) convective-velocity amplitudes in the solar interior at the depth r/R = 0.96 do not agree with modeling results derived at a similar depth from global convection simulations. The observations of low convective-velocity amplitudes throw into question our understanding of thermal and angular momentum transport in the Sun.
Our results show that raising the source surface height 15-30% during solar minimum (depending on the model used) better reproduces the observed IMF open flux from OMNI. We used two different PFSS models and the MDI/HMI magnetograms as input.