A sunquake event was excited by an M9.3 flare; however, the source of the sunquake waves was wave-mechanically extrapolated to about 1 megameter beneath the photosphere.
A number of sunquake events were detected in the photosphere after the X9.3 flare of 6 September 2017. This analysis reported the first detection of the chromspheric response to the sunquake events using CaII and Hα observations made by the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope.
Analysis of HMI and KONUS/WIND data shows that photospheric and helioseismic flare impacts started to develop in compact regions in close vicinity of the magnetic polarity inversion line in the pre-impulsive phase before detection of hard X-ray emission.
Waves of magnetic-field variations were observed associated with the sunquake waves that were excited by the X9.3 flare on 2017 September 6. The nature and cause of the magnetic waves are discussed after the phase relations and power distributions of the magnetic waves and Doppler-observed sunquake waves are investigated.
Through analyzing a suite of space- and ground-based observations, the authors report that above sunspots, helioseismic waves of different frequencies are able to channel up through the chromosphere and transition region into corona. General pictures of how the waves make into corona are also shown.
Multiple-wavelength high-resolution observations reveal running penumbral waves in the middle photosphere, with an apparent horizontal speed of up to 51 km/s.
A newly discovered, fast-moving wave propagates outward along sunspots’ radial direction and may provide new diagnostics of the sunspot subsurface structure.