A new website is developed to host HMI’s time-distance pipeline products, including far-side images, subsurface flows, evolution of near-surface zonal and meridional flows.
Helioseismic wavefields are simulated using different meridional-circulation models. Time-distance helioseismic measurements applied on the simulated data indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish between single- or double-cell meridional circulation profiles.
A new method to derive the helioseismic sensitivity kernels for the Sun’s large-scale internal flows is developed. The new method is based on the idea of placing a small-volume flow perturbation inside the Sun’s model, simulating the wavefield in the photosphere, and then measuring the phase shifts caused by this internal perturbation.
Fourier Legendre decomposition is applied on HMI’s long-term Doppler-velocity observations to derive the Sun’s internal meridional circulation. In addition to the well-known center-to-limb effect, a non-axisymmetric component in the northern- and southern-hemisphere is identified as another systematic effect that complicates the derivation of the internal meridional circulation.
A more comprehensive time-distance helioseismic method is developed to derive the Sun’s meridional circulation, and a 3-layer flow structure is found through the convection zone.
Motivated by recent observations we have explored whether the flux-transport dynamo model can work with multi-cell meridional flow. We find that it can work when certain conditions are fulfilled.
Solar meridional circulation, if mechanically driven and thermally
braked, contains two cells in latitude; generating two cells in depth,
recently observed by SDO/HMI, is a new challenge to theory.