A new method tracking individual features in a long time series of magnetograms yields new measurements of solar differential rotation and meridional circulation rate.
Large-scale inflows form around emerging solar active regions in the near-surface layer and alter the global meridional flow patterns.
Subsurface meridional flow speed shows an anti-correlation with the magnetic flux being transported poleward above the latitude of 35°. In the lower latitude, the residual meridional flow, after a long-time mean profile is subtracted, shows converging flow toward the activity belts.
Acoustic travel time reveals an equatorward meridional flow in the middle of the solar convection zone. Inversion reveals an evidence of double-cell meridional circulation inside the Sun.