Employing an updated Babcock–Leighton dynamo model, this study finds that the model with scattered tilt angles, which are around the Joy’s Law but with a standard deviation of 15°, is able to reproduce the observed variations of solar cycles.
Meridional flows during the solar minimum and maximum years are derived using 14 years of SOHO/MDI data. The flows changed significantly from the minimum to the maximum, and major changes were associated with the active latitudes.
It is demonstrated that when taking into account of the radial inhomogeneity of the Coriolis number, the solar-like differential rotation and the double-cell meridional circulation can both be reproduced by the mean-field model.
Various observable, such as polar field, meridional flow, and sunspot number, are examined to identify information flow, causality, and time delay between them during solar cycles. It is expected that this analysis can provide observational constraints on solar cycle models and theories.
The Sun’s surface poloidal and toroidal magnetic field were constructed for the last 4 solar cycles using observations from multiple instruments, and were then reproduced using the updated Babcock-Leighton model.
The Sun’s meridional flow varies with the solar cycle, and this is possibly caused by the back-reaction of the dynamo-generated magnetic field on the meridional flow due to the Lorentz force.
Recent discoveries suggest that Sun-like stars experience a fundamental shift in their rotation and magnetism around middle-age. We have now identified this transition in the best available data on stellar cycles.
Using a combination of the magnetograms, we find signs of the beginning of the 25th cycle from both HMI and WSO by calculating the inclination angles determined from the variation in line of sight field during a disk passage.
Tiny sunspots, or pores, might have escaped the observers during the Maunder minimum. However, they might have carried enough magnetic flux for the normal operation of a Babcock-Leighton-type dynamo.
Solar inter-network magnetic field, the weakest component of the solar magnetism, seems to be invariant at ~10 G from the minimum to the maximum phase of Cycle 24. This suggests a possible origin of small-scale, local dynamo.