The giant cellular flows, obtained through tracking HMI-observed Dopplergrams, are used to estimate kinetic helicity and Reynolds stress inside the Sun, as well as differential rotation and poleward drift near the bottom of the convection zone.
Why do some flares cause sunquakes and others do not? A survey of 60 strong flares in Solar Cycle 24 supports a hypothesis that the coupling of downward photospheric oscillations and the impacts from flares may play a role in causing sunquakes.
A new method to derive the helioseismic sensitivity kernels for the Sun’s large-scale internal flows is developed. The new method is based on the idea of placing a small-volume flow perturbation inside the Sun’s model, simulating the wavefield in the photosphere, and then measuring the phase shifts caused by this internal perturbation.
Fourier Legendre decomposition is applied on HMI’s long-term Doppler-velocity observations to derive the Sun’s internal meridional circulation. In addition to the well-known center-to-limb effect, a non-axisymmetric component in the northern- and southern-hemisphere is identified as another systematic effect that complicates the derivation of the internal meridional circulation.
To study the physical processes causing the hemispheric sign preference (HSP) of helicity in the Sun, the authors surveyed active regions (ARs) observed during Solar Cycle 24 to estimate their magnetic helicity flux, and studied the HSP dependences of the magnetic helicity flux with respect to various properties of ARs.
To search for signatures of Alfvénic waves in the solar photosphere, the authors analyze the oscillation amplitudes, phases and time-distance behavior between different observables in a sunspot umbra, its polarity inversion line, and surrounding area.
A surface flux-transport dynamo model assimilation shows that the long-lasting active-region complexes, which appeared in the Sun’s southern hemisphere during Cycle 24, played a crucial role in the pole’s polarity reversal and the field strength at the cycle minimum.
A sunquake event was excited by an M9.3 flare; however, the source of the sunquake waves was wave-mechanically extrapolated to about 1 megameter beneath the photosphere.
Through studying three homologous eruptive events in an active region, the authors conclude that shearing motions and magnetic flux cancellation play a dominant role leading to the recurrent eruptions, and are key processes forming the eruptive structures.
Using the solar axial magnetic dipole moment obtained prior to the solar minimum, the author predicts that the maximum sunspot number of Solar Cycle 25 is about 128.