To search for signatures of Alfvénic waves in the solar photosphere, the authors analyze the oscillation amplitudes, phases and time-distance behavior between different observables in a sunspot umbra, its polarity inversion line, and surrounding area.
A surface flux-transport dynamo model assimilation shows that the long-lasting active-region complexes, which appeared in the Sun’s southern hemisphere during Cycle 24, played a crucial role in the pole’s polarity reversal and the field strength at the cycle minimum.
A sunquake event was excited by an M9.3 flare; however, the source of the sunquake waves was wave-mechanically extrapolated to about 1 megameter beneath the photosphere.
Through studying three homologous eruptive events in an active region, the authors conclude that shearing motions and magnetic flux cancellation play a dominant role leading to the recurrent eruptions, and are key processes forming the eruptive structures.
Using the solar axial magnetic dipole moment obtained prior to the solar minimum, the author predicts that the maximum sunspot number of Solar Cycle 25 is about 128.
Analysis of magnetic helicity of eruptive and confined flaring events indicates that non-potential magnetic helicity is indicative to eruptive potentials of active regions.
Critical decay index is a measure of the rate at which background field intensity decreases with height over the flux ropes or erupting structures. The indices for 10 eruptive prominences are calculated, and their relations to the eruptions are discussed.
New HMI 96-minute vector magnetograms are now available. Deep averaging reduces noise and enhances long-lived magnetic structures.
A large sample statistical study of normalized Lorentz force and torques in emerging magnetic field shows that the photospheric magnetic field has a rather small Lorentz forces and torques, close to a force-free state.
Apparent 3-min waves observed inside sunspot umbrae are modeled as excited about 1000 to 2000 km beneath sunspots’ surface.