Meridional flows during the solar minimum and maximum years are derived using 14 years of SOHO/MDI data. The flows changed significantly from the minimum to the maximum, and major changes were associated with the active latitudes.
It is demonstrated that when taking into account of the radial inhomogeneity of the Coriolis number, the solar-like differential rotation and the double-cell meridional circulation can both be reproduced by the mean-field model.
The systematic Center-to-Limb effect in time-distance helioseismic measurements is found to be significantly frequency dependent. The dependence further varies with disk-centric distance but not with travel distance.
A more comprehensive time-distance helioseismic method is developed to derive the Sun’s meridional circulation, and a 3-layer flow structure is found through the convection zone.
Helioseismic far-side images are compared with the STEREO-AIA EUV observations, and a reliability of the helioseismic images is assessed.
An X9.3 flare excited strong yet unusual sunquakes.
Rapid and irreversible changes in chromospheric magnetic field during a flare have been observed for the first time. They look surprisingly different from their photospheric counterpart.
A new analysis using about 4 years of HMI 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation “tracer” finds a large velocity gradient at the top of the photosphere. It is suggested that the net effect of the photospheric angular momentum loss is similar to Poynting-Robertson “photon braking” on, for example, Sun-orbiting dust.
A comparison of the surface flow patterns in observation and numerical simulation suggests that the flux tube emerging speed has been overestimated in theories.
Through analyzing a suite of space- and ground-based observations, the authors report that above sunspots, helioseismic waves of different frequencies are able to channel up through the chromosphere and transition region into corona. General pictures of how the waves make into corona are also shown.