Analysis on high-spectral resolution data shows that oscillations in the higher atmosphere lead those in the lower atmosphere by an order of 1 s when their frequencies are below about 3.0 mHz, and lags behind by about 1 s when their frequencies are above 3.0 mHz. These phase shifts in the evanescent waves pose great challenges to the interpretation of some local helioseismic measurements that involve data acquired at different atmospheric heights.
High-frequency inertial waves were detected inside the Sun, propagating retrograde relative to the solar rotation with a phase speed faster than equatorial Rossby waves. How these waves are generated is discussed but remains unclear.
Sunquakes are helioseismic waves excited by solar flares, usually observed in the photosphere. However, some of these events are found to have their counterparts in the chromosphere, as observed in the SDO/AIA UV channels.
Quasi-biennial oscillations are found in the Sun’s interior rotation-rate residuals. They appear differently at different depths and latitudes, and evolve with time.
Instead of the center-annulus measurement geometry that time-distance helioseismology typically uses, a new one-sided center-arc measurement scheme is developed. This method shows advantage in measuring subsurface flows in in a close neighborhood of magnetic regions.
A new method, which is to characterize the multiscale convective spectrum of the Sun using high-resolution line-of-sight Dopplergram images from HMI, is developed, enabling the authors to estimate the spectrum to the finest observable scales.
A new website is developed to host HMI’s time-distance pipeline products, including far-side images, subsurface flows, evolution of near-surface zonal and meridional flows.
Helioseismic wavefields are simulated using different meridional-circulation models. Time-distance helioseismic measurements applied on the simulated data indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish between single- or double-cell meridional circulation profiles.
The giant cellular flows, obtained through tracking HMI-observed Dopplergrams, are used to estimate kinetic helicity and Reynolds stress inside the Sun, as well as differential rotation and poleward drift near the bottom of the convection zone.
Why do some flares cause sunquakes and others do not? A survey of 60 strong flares in Solar Cycle 24 supports a hypothesis that the coupling of downward photospheric oscillations and the impacts from flares may play a role in causing sunquakes.