Power-spectrum analysis is applied on the time-distance measured travel-time shifts in the Sun’s north-south direction along the equatorial area, and the existence of Rossby waves is confirmed.
The Sun’s oblateness shows a variation with solar cycles, in phase with the solar activity level in Cycle 23 but in anti-phase with the activity level in Cycle 24. Such a trend of in-phase during odd cycles and anti-phase during even cycles is confirmed after examining past observations.
To minimize cross-talk effect from vertical flows and sound-speed perturbations, a new inversion code is developed to invert for flows and sound-speed perturbations simultaneously from time-distance travel-time measurements. The code is validated using numerical simulation data.
Through analyzing simultaneous HMI’s visible-light observations and AIA’s ultraviolet observations, the authors show that a significant amount of acoustic waves with frequencies lower than the theoretical cutoff frequency can channel up along less inclined magnetic field from the photosphere to the chromosphere.
An analysis of zonal flow acceleration/deceleration inside the Sun reveals patterns of dynamo waves, and suggests that the primary seat of the dynamo is located in a high-latitude zone of the tachocline.
Analysis of HMI and KONUS/WIND data shows that photospheric and helioseismic flare impacts started to develop in compact regions in close vicinity of the magnetic polarity inversion line in the pre-impulsive phase before detection of hard X-ray emission.
New helioseismic analysis of the Sun’s subsurface zonal flows shows the equator-migrating branch of the faster-than-average rotation, a sign of the Solar Cycle 25.
The Sun’s seismic radius, measured from the frequencies of f modes, is determined using both MDI and HMI data, covering a total of 21 years. It is found that the seismic radius is reduced by 1-2 km during the maxima, but the largest change of the radius happens at about 5 Mm beneath the surface.
Waves of magnetic-field variations were observed associated with the sunquake waves that were excited by the X9.3 flare on 2017 September 6. The nature and cause of the magnetic waves are discussed after the phase relations and power distributions of the magnetic waves and Doppler-observed sunquake waves are investigated.
Ring-diagram analysis is applied on the HMI-observed sunspots of about 3 years. The attenuation of wave amplitudes near sunspots, rotational speed of sunspots, and subsurface flows around sunspots are discussed.