A more comprehensive time-distance helioseismic method is developed to derive the Sun’s meridional circulation, and a 3-layer flow structure is found through the convection zone.
Helioseismic far-side images are compared with the STEREO-AIA EUV observations, and a reliability of the helioseismic images is assessed.
An X9.3 flare excited strong yet unusual sunquakes.
Rapid and irreversible changes in chromospheric magnetic field during a flare have been observed for the first time. They look surprisingly different from their photospheric counterpart.
A new analysis using about 4 years of HMI 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation “tracer” finds a large velocity gradient at the top of the photosphere. It is suggested that the net effect of the photospheric angular momentum loss is similar to Poynting-Robertson “photon braking” on, for example, Sun-orbiting dust.
A comparison of the surface flow patterns in observation and numerical simulation suggests that the flux tube emerging speed has been overestimated in theories.
Through analyzing a suite of space- and ground-based observations, the authors report that above sunspots, helioseismic waves of different frequencies are able to channel up through the chromosphere and transition region into corona. General pictures of how the waves make into corona are also shown.
Through mimicking observations in high-latitude areas, we find that the foreshortening affects the time-distance measured mean travel-times, but is not accountable for the center-to-limb effect in travel-time differences.
We have generated a dataset of emerging active regions (EARs) observed by SDO/HMI that is specifically suitable for helioseismic analysis. Using this dataset we show that, on average the bipoles have a symmetric the east-west velocity relative to differential rotation.
Large-scale inflows form around emerging solar active regions in the near-surface layer and alter the global meridional flow patterns.