Helicity injection by the continued shear and converging flows contributes to a sigmoid’s sustenance, its core field twist, ans its eventual eruption.
Magnetic flux of opposite polarities belonging to two different emerging/emerged bipoles inside multipolar magnetic regions, can experience “collisional shearing”, a process resulting in strong shearing and fast cancellation of magnetic flux near the polarity inversion line. This type of flux cancellation is found to be the cause of a succession of major flares and CMEs in complex active regions.
Jets resulting from eruption of minifilaments have lots of similarities to CMEs resulting from eruptions of large-scale filaments. This study on occurrences of jets can shed light on our understanding of what causes CME eruptions.
Two flares occurred in a same active region above a same polarity inversion line, but one had a failed CME eruption but another one had a successful CME eruption. This study explored why that was the case.
AR12192, the largest active region in Solar Cycle 24, produced 6 X-class flares, but none of them were associated with a CME. However, a much weaker flare, of M4.0-class, was associated with a CME. Magnetic field and morphological changes are analyzed during these flares to understand why this is the case.
44 strong flares are analyzed, and a few factors are identified to determine whether a flare will be eruptive or confined.
A statistical study of sunspot region properties yields insights on why some are flare-productive.
A statistical study using HMI vector magnetograms predicts the fastest CME that an active region can produce based on its magnetic parameters.
AR 12192 produced six X-class flares, but none was associated with a CME. HMI observations reveal the mild nature of the giant. It has weak relative non-potentiality and strong overlying field; the confined X3 flare leaves little imprint on the photosphere.