Apparent 3-min waves observed inside sunspot umbrae are modeled as excited about 1000 to 2000 km beneath sunspots’ surface.
What excites the sunspot umbral oscillations? Through analyzing two sunspots observed by FeI line, the authors found that the 3-minute umbral oscillations are likely excited by internal small-scale magnetoconvection associated with umbral dots.
We observed magnetoacoustic waves propagating along the magnetic field lines of a sunspot. Based on the wave periods and atmospheric characteristics, we reconstructed the magnetic field topology of the sunspot.