Apparent 3-min waves observed inside sunspot umbrae are modeled as excited about 1000 to 2000 km beneath sunspots’ surface.
Newly developed time-distance helioseismic imaging method, which includes more multiskip acoustic waves, is proved to be more reliable in mapping the Sun’s far-side active regions.
Power-spectrum analysis is applied on the time-distance measured travel-time shifts in the Sun’s north-south direction along the equatorial area, and the existence of Rossby waves is confirmed.
New helioseismic analysis of the Sun’s subsurface zonal flows shows the equator-migrating branch of the faster-than-average rotation, a sign of the Solar Cycle 25.
The Sun’s seismic radius, measured from the frequencies of f modes, is determined using both MDI and HMI data, covering a total of 21 years. It is found that the seismic radius is reduced by 1-2 km during the maxima, but the largest change of the radius happens at about 5 Mm beneath the surface.
Meridional flows during the solar minimum and maximum years are derived using 14 years of SOHO/MDI data. The flows changed significantly from the minimum to the maximum, and major changes were associated with the active latitudes.
Through mimicking observations in high-latitude areas, we find that the foreshortening affects the time-distance measured mean travel-times, but is not accountable for the center-to-limb effect in travel-time differences.
We have generated a dataset of emerging active regions (EARs) observed by SDO/HMI that is specifically suitable for helioseismic analysis. Using this dataset we show that, on average the bipoles have a symmetric the east-west velocity relative to differential rotation.
Ring-diagram analysis reveals that the convective flow speed inside the Sun is consistent with most numerical simulations of global convection.
The mean size of supergranulation has been found to vary over time with a period of 3-5 days. We have used full-disk Doppler images from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) to verify that these fluctuations are solar in origin.