Through mimicking observations in high-latitude areas, we find that the foreshortening affects the time-distance measured mean travel-times, but is not accountable for the center-to-limb effect in travel-time differences.
We have generated a dataset of emerging active regions (EARs) observed by SDO/HMI that is specifically suitable for helioseismic analysis. Using this dataset we show that, on average the bipoles have a symmetric the east-west velocity relative to differential rotation.
Ring-diagram analysis reveals that the convective flow speed inside the Sun is consistent with most numerical simulations of global convection.
The mean size of supergranulation has been found to vary over time with a period of 3-5 days. We have used full-disk Doppler images from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) to verify that these fluctuations are solar in origin.
Analysis of a large number of supergranules observed with HMI and simulations with a convectively stabilized solar model imply that the average supergranular cell has a peak upflow of 240 m s-1 at a depth of 2.3 Mm and a corresponding peak outward horizontal flow of 700 m s-1 at a depth of 1.6 Mm.