What makes the limb flares detectable in visible lights, hydrogen recombination or Thomson scattering?
An X9.3 flare excited strong yet unusual sunquakes.
Recent discoveries suggest that Sun-like stars experience a fundamental shift in their rotation and magnetism around middle-age. We have now identified this transition in the best available data on stellar cycles.
A statistical investigation of the background magnetic field decay index reveals interesting features of the critical height for the flux rope torus instability.
We quantify the emergence and decay rates of ten bipolar active regions using vector magnetic field data from HMI. Our results, placed in context with other observational and modeling results in the literature, confirm a trend that higher flux regions emerge faster and the rate is dependent on the total flux of that region.
A new method tracking individual features in a long time series of magnetograms yields new measurements of solar differential rotation and meridional circulation rate.
Rapid and irreversible changes in chromospheric magnetic field during a flare have been observed for the first time. They look surprisingly different from their photospheric counterpart.
New HMI high-cadence vector magnetograms are now available. Observations every 135 or 90 seconds reveal the rapid magnetic evolution occurring during major solar eruptions.
A new analysis using about 4 years of HMI 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation “tracer” finds a large velocity gradient at the top of the photosphere. It is suggested that the net effect of the photospheric angular momentum loss is similar to Poynting-Robertson “photon braking” on, for example, Sun-orbiting dust.
A statistical study of sunspot region properties yields insights on why some are flare-productive.